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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by circumscribed, red, thickened plaques with overlying silvery white scales. It is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory mediators that lead to the development of edema and distress.
Here we show the anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriatic efficacies of a neutraceutical sea buckthorn oil SBKT derived from the fruit pulp of Hippophae rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the SBKT showed the presence of 16 major saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids components, imparting significant nutritional values. Treatment of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells with SBKT subdued the enhanced release of intracellular reactive nitrogen species and expression of NF-κB protein, in a concentration-dependent manner.
This was accompanied by a reduction in the release of downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-1ß and interleukin In vivo oral and topical treatment with SBKT in the Carrageenan-stimulated paw edema model, showed a significant decrease in paw volume and edema. In the O tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate TPA stimulated CD-1 mice psoriasis-like model, concurrent oral and tropical SBKT treatments substantially reduced ear edema and ear biopsy weights.
Histopathologically, significant reduction in ear epidermal thickness and skin lesion scores was observed in the SBKT-treated animals. In conclusion, SBKT showed anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriasis-like efficacies in healing chemical-induced inflammation and psoriasis.
The possible mode of action of SBKT was found through inhibition of reactive nitrogen species, and downregulation of NF-κB protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the present data suggest that Sea buckthorn oil can be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriatic nutraceutical.
Keywords: sea buckthorn oil, nutraceutical, anti-inflammatory activity, paw edema, psoriasis, O-tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate, THP-1, cytokines Introduction Inflammation is induced as a response by the immune system to stimulations by invading foreign pathogens or by endogenous signals originating from damaged cells.
While the primary function for pro-inflammatory cells is to counter the inducer and perform damage repair, sustained and unchecked inflammation can lead to the development of pathologies and induction of chronic diseases. General symptoms of the psoriasis are circumscribed, red, and thickened plaques with an overlying silver-white scale s inducing itching, burning, and irritation. Pathological signatures for psoriasis development include enhanced keratinocyte proliferation in the basal and suprabasal epidermal regions, the diminished thickness of the stratum granulosum, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis Gudjonsson and Elder, Critical inflammatory cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and T helper TH cells infiltrate the psoriasis lesions, and along with the stressed keratinocytes produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines Liu, ; Richardson and Gelfand, ; Wagner et al.
Currently, there are no permanent treatments for psoriasis, and anti-inflammatory drugs are topically applied during the flaring of the disease. Nutraceuticals application includes a range of therapeutic areas like skin diseases, sleeping disorders, osteoporosis, metabolic disorders, etc.
Eukaliptusz pikkelysömör kezelése buckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. It plaque psoriasis cause and treatment a medium-sized, thorny plant grows in the cold arid regions of Europe and Asia. Medicinal applications of these plants have been mentioned in the ancient Greek and Tibetan medicinal texts. In modern times, the SBKT plant and its plaque psoriasis cause and treatment have been studied for their therapeutic applications in cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, liver, and skin diseases Zeb, ; Ganju et al.
The oil obtained from the pulp of the SBKT plant is composed of sterols, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids Zeb, ; Bal et al. Presence of high quantities of these biomolecules along with mineral elements like Ca, P, Fe, and K; vitamins like C, B1, B2, and K; and sugars like glucose and fructose, effectively presents the SBKT plant as a valuable source for human nutrition Christaki, Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have positive effects on neurological disorders, with observed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities Kumar et al.
Acute and sub-chronic plaque psoriasis cause and treatment studies in animals have also shown that SBKT is non-toxic up to 90 days of repeated dosing in rats Zhao et al.
In the present study, we performed the chemical analysis of SBKT and tagged those findings with its observed biological efficacies. We also investigated the mechanism of action for the SBKT in its anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriasis-like activities in bacterial lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated human monocyte THP-1 cells under in vitro conditions.
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Finally, we validated the efficacy of SBKT administered at a human equivalent dosage, in modifying Carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in Wistar rats, and in ameliorating O-tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate TPA -induced skin psoriasis in CD-1 mice. Hematoxylin, potassium aluminium sulfate dodecahydrate, and mercury II oxide red were purchased from Merck India Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India. All the other chemicals and reagents purchased for the study were of the highest commercial grade.
The mixture was again refluxed for an additional 5 min after the addition of 10 ml BF3 reagent.
The entire mixture was transferred to the centrifuge tube, mixed with 5 ml NaCl solution using a vortex at a low speed, and allowed plaque psoriasis cause and treatment separate likopid a pikkelysömör vélemények kezelésében multiple layers. One milliliter of the upper layer containing fatty acid methyl esters was transferred to GC vial and further used for the gas chromatography AOAC, Fatty acid methyl ester FAME mix was used in the identification and quantification of individual fatty acids.
THP-1 cells were plated in a well plate at a concentration of 10, cells per well in a well plate. The cells were pre-incubated overnight and exposed to the SBKT oil at concentrations of 0. At the end of the exposure time, cells were washed with µl PBS. One hundred microliters of 0. At the end of the exposure period, the dye was removed. One hundred microliters of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO was added, and the plates were placed on a shaker for 10 min.
Absorbance of each well was read using the PerkinElmer Envision microplate reader at nm wavelength, and cell viability percentage was calculated. Absorbance was recorded at nm using Envision Microplate reader PerkinElmer. For the experiment, SBKT oil was prepared as an emulsion and mixed with the cell culture media at different concentrations: 1.
No LPS was added to the negative control cells. Absorbance was recorded at nm using the Envision microplate reader PerkinElmer. Two days after transfection, the experiment was performed as described by Ishimoto et al. Used media was replaced with media containing test compound and control.
Ltd, Hyderabad, India. Male Wistar rats 8 to 10 weeks were procured from Liveon Biolabs Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India. The animals were fed a standard pellet diet Golden Feed, India and sterile-filtered water ad libitum. All the experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations described by the ethical committees. Wistar rats were divided into different groups of eight animals each based on plaque psoriasis cause and treatment paw volume 0 hmeasured using Plethysmometer Ugo Basile, Italy.
Inflammation was induced by the subcutaneous injection of λ-Carrageenan 0.
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The paw was marked with ink at the level of the lateral malleolus, and the volume was measured up to the mark at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after carrageenan injection for all the animals.
Paw edema was calculated by subtracting the 0-h basal paw volume from the respective paw volumes at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h. Briefly, 20 µl of TPA solution 2.
Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза.
The left ear was served as the vehicle control and treated with 20 µl of acetone on the same days. Ear thickness was measured every day using a digital Vernier caliper Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan.
An increase in ear thickness was determined by subtracting the ear thickness of day 0 before TPA or acetone application from the respective time point thickness. Histopathological Analysis CD-1 mice were humanely euthanized on day 10 after 6 h of the last drug treatment.
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The sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. By using a bright-field microscope, low-magnification and high-magnification histology images of the ear biopsy samples were obtained at × and ×, respectively. The thickness of the epidermis from the basal layer to the stratum corneum was measured by MagVision image analysis software using the Magcam DC5 microscopic camera and calibration by a stage micrometer.
Distribution of the lesions was recorded as focal, multifocal, and diffused. The different parameters like the extent of the lesion, severity of hyperkeratosis, number and size of pustules, epidermal hyperplasia measured in the interfollicular epidermisthe severity of inflammation in the dermis and soft tissue, and any other lesion s were considered for histopathological examination and scoring.
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Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 7. Two-way ANOVA followed by Newman—Keuls multiple comparison test was used to calculate the statistical difference in absolute paw volume, paw edema, and ear edema.
Saturated fatty acid content represented the highest quantity of fatty acids